Amps to Kilowatts Converter

During electrical power calculation, typically we use the normal calculator, in which sometimes we make mistakes during ac power calculations. Ac power consists of a power factor which we have to take into consideration. Again for three phase we have consider root 3 facor. This simple calculator will…

Transmission Line Parameter Calculation

Transmission line length formula:   the velocity of light in km/s Now suppose  a transmission line parameter data is as follows R= 0.010 pu, X= 0.085 pu, B=0.176 pu. The base value of power and voltage is given as Vb=230 kV , Sb= 100 MVA Then the length is Length = 97.33 km…
thermal overload relays

Why is both RTD temperature and thermal overload protection needed?

Although both methods give protection against overload and thermal rise, both have own pros and cons. Especially with the important objects, both methods are used because they complement each other. RTD basics A fundamental physical property of a metal is that its resistivity changes with temperature. For many metals,…

Protection relay codes

Introduction: Numerical codes are sometimes used when defining the protection relay, whereas in other cases symbols are used. The numerical codes refer to the IEEE C37-2 Standard, whereas the symbols refer to the IEC Standards. In the definition of the symbols the IEC Standards have not detailed all…
Buchholz relay

All About Buchholz Relay

Whenever a fault in the transformer develops slowly, heat is produced locally, which begins to decompose solid of liquid-insulated materials and thus to produce inflammable gas and oil flow. This phenomenon has been used in the gas protection relay or popularly known as Buchholz relay. This relay is…
grounding system

Electrical Grounding System Explained

Introduction: Power systems grounding is probably the most misunderstood element of any power systems design. Historically, the method of system grounding selected for various electrical system settings, e.g., industrial, commercial, etc., dates back to the early part of this century when only two methods were considered: solid grounded…

All About Induction Machines

Introduction Induction machines, also called asynchronous machines, can be used as generators or motors. Induction machines can be either of one or three-phase construction. The following discussion focuses on the three-phase machines and their properties. The maximum of the applications for three-phase induction machines is with power ranges…
Power factor correction

Power Factor Correction: Methods Explained

The power factor is a concept that is needed to be very clearly understood by electrical engineers. It is studied in the first or second year of the engineering courses when the students are not fully ready to grasp all the bits and pieces of this concept. Here…
Swithgear and Protection

Switchgear and Protection Short Question Answer

INTRODUCTION Switchgear and protection is one of the most important topic in electrical and power engineering. All the electrical machines are very expensive assets for our electrical grid network, e.g: motor, generator, transformer. So knowledge on switchgear and protection is must. In this post we will look some…
Protection Relay

Philosophy of Protection System Settings

The objectives  of the protection system are: –  limit damage to people and to the plant; –  permit different  service conditions; –  guarantee maximum service continuity for the plant not affected  by faults; –  activate the automatisms provided. The characteristics of the protection system of an electric networks…