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Protection relay codes

Introduction: Numerical codes are sometimes used when defining the protection relay, whereas in other cases symbols are used. The numerical codes refer to the IEEE C37-2 Standard, whereas the symbols…

Buchholz relay

All About Buchholz Relay

Whenever a fault in the transformer develops slowly, heat is produced locally, which begins to decompose solid of liquid-insulated materials and thus to produce inflammable gas and oil flow. This…

grounding system

Electrical Grounding System Explained

Introduction: Power systems grounding is probably the most misunderstood element of any power systems design. Historically, the method of system grounding selected for various electrical system settings, e.g., industrial, commercial,…

All About Induction Machines

Introduction Induction machines, also called asynchronous machines, can be used as generators or motors. Induction machines can be either of one or three-phase construction. The following discussion focuses on the…

Power Factor Correction: Methods Explained

The main means for the generation of reactive power are: • synchronous alternators; • synchronous compensators (SC); • static var compensators (SVC); • banks of static capacitors Synchronous alternators Synchronous…

Protection Relay

Philosophy of Protection System Settings

The objectives  of the protection system are: –  limit damage to people and to the plant; –  permit different  service conditions; –  guarantee maximum service continuity for the plant not…

Electrical characteristics

(Peak) making current: The peak value of the first major loop of the current in one pole of a switching device during the transient period following the initiation of current…